Meteorology. As mountainous zone predominates the area of Bayan-Ulgii aimag the climate is humid and chillier than some other western aimags of Mongolia. At high mountain zones, the average temperature is -4°C to -2°C and the annual precipitation is 200mm to 400mm while at Khovd River Basin; a lower area, the average temprature reaches 0-2°C and the annual precipitation is about 100mm to 200mm. Since the aimag is generally colder than the other aimags, it is impractical for agricultural purposes. Alongside of Khovd aimag, the Altantsugts and Bayannuur sums of Bayan-Ulgii province have better soil condition for agriculture. In the center of aimag, Ulgii city, the average temperature is -0.2°C, in January -17.8°C and in July it is +14.5°C. The annual precipitation of the region is 107.1mm.
Soil. The sediments from the quaternary era are of mostly sand, clay and break-stone that are formed due to wash outs of rivers, lakes and water funds are spread throughout the region. The soil of the aimag is classified into the 56th circle of Altaic high region zone for its quality. Mostly, loose mountain-meadow soil, mountain-steppe, mountain dark-brown, mountain-maroon and meadow soil dominates the area. Also, small area around Achit Lake and Bukhmurun Basin has Gobi-brown soil. As the soil is stony, it is not suitable for agriculture. Almost 70% of all Mongolian tundra soil and high-mountain soil, steppe mushy soil and steppe thick soil belong to this aimag. The river basin is mostly covered with meadow soil, swampy and salty soil which is a well fit for agricultural purposes.