Fauna. Mongolian Altai and Khangai Mountain Ranges are home to various types of wild lives such as wild sheep, wild goat, lynx, deer, badger, wild boar and roe deer. In any zone of the territory of Bayankhongor province, there are fur-fauna marten, marmot, fox, wolf, corsac, wildcat and such. There are many rare and protected animals such as white antelope, black tailed, Gobi bear, Mongolian Bactrian camel, Bulrush specifically in the steppe. About 150 species of birds including eagle, golden eagle, snow cock, bobwhite, Henderson’s ground jay, vulture, swan, goose, mandarin duck, courlan and bustard, and many types of fish including luce, perch and ruff inhabit Bayankhongor aimag's area.
Flora. One third of all species of plants of Mongolia grow in Bayankhongor aimag. North side of the area is covered with forest-steppe plants, and the middle and south parts are covered with steppe-Gobi plants. There are numerous rare floras such as certain type of poplar, bulbous plant, snowlotus, tamarisk, bush and a variety of medically used floras such as cynomorium, agriophyllum, saussurea invoclurata, roseroot, pagoda-tree, evergreen shrub and lymegrass found in Gobi area of Bayankhongor province.