Geography. Bayankhongor aimag's territory covers Gobi and steppe regions at the south western side of Mongolia that includes the southern edge of Khangai Mountain Range, Gobi Altai mountains, and South Altai Gobi. The land surface is mixed with mountains and hallows. The highest point is Gobi-Altai's Peak - Ikh Bogd at 3,957m and the lowest point is in Altai-Uvur gobi at 750m. Also, Zeerengiin hallow, Nomingiin Govi and Altai Uvur Govi exist in the area. There was an intense earthquake in Gobi-Altai Mountains in 1957 and a huge 300km opening was formed behind the Ikh Bogd and Bayantsagaan mountains. The aimag is bordered with Arkhangai Aimag to the north, Zavkhan Aimag to the northwest, Govi-Altai Aimag to the west, Umnugovi Aimag to the southeast, Uvurkhangai Aimag to the east for 1,700km and the People's Republic of China to the south for 130km respectively. Bayankhongor province is rich with anthracite, gold and other construction material resources.
Soil. Bayankhongor aimag's territory consists of 5 regions: high mountain region, Gobi region, forest-steppe in the north, steppe in the middle and semi-desert in the south. Khangai Mountain Ranges' branch mountains and river hallow soil is dark and fertile. In the steppe region, hills and valley soil consist of dark brown, sandy brown and gray earth. In the Gobi zone soil is hard mix of sand, clay and breakstone.