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Mongolia geography & climate
HomeAbout MongoliaMongolia geography & climateUpdated 2017 March

Mongolia Geography & Climate: GeographyMongolia is a landlocked country in Central Asia with the area of 1,565,000km². Total length of the border is 8,158km and out of that Mongolia shares a 3,485km border with the Russian Federation to the north and 4,673km with the People's Republic of China to the south. From the most western to most eastern point is 2,392km and from the most northern point to the most southern point is 1,259km. The capital city, Ulaanbaatar, is the biggest city in the country; about 50% of the population lives in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia is elevated on average about 1,580m above sea level. In the north and west lie Altai, Khangai and Khentii mountain ranges. Gobi and desert regions spread throughout the east and south of the country. Much of the country consists of steppe. The highest point in Mongolia is Khuiten Peak in the Tavan Bogd mountain range in the far west at 4,374m above sea level. From the north to the south, the country is divided into 4 major regions differing in natural and geographical features; Khangai and Khentii, Altain mointains, Dornod plains and Gobi regions. Further, Mongolia is divided into six natural zones; high mountain zone, taiga (forest) zone, forest steppe zone, steppe zone, desert steppe zone and desert zone. Mongolia is the 19th largest but the most sparsely populated independent country in the world.

Mongolia Geography & Climate: ClimateMongolia is located on high lands with strong winds. Winter time is long and harsh, Summer time is short. Most of the precipitation falls during the summer season. Air temperature fluctuates between -15°C to -30°C during winter and +10°C to +26.7°C during summer time.
Annual average temperature is less than -4°C in Altai, Khangai, Khuvsgul and Khentii Mountainous regions, -6°C to -8°C in river basins and valleys, less than +2°C in plain regions, and above +6°C in Gobi regions. On average, 257 sunny days occur in a year. Most of the precipitation occurs in the north of the country with 200-350 mm in a year, and only 100-200 mm occurs in south. The Gobi desert is located in the very south of the country and it is very common that no precipitation will occur in a whole year.
Mongolia's annual average temperature is 0°C. The coldest is in January with -30°C to -34°C in Altai, Khangai, Khuvsgul, Khentii mountainous regions, -20°C to -25°C in plain regions, -15°C to -20°C in Gobi regions, and -15°C to -12°C in South Gobi regions. Since 1940, the record coldest day occurred in December of 1976, in Zuungovi sum of Uvs province with -55.3°C. In Ulaanbaatar city, the coldest day occurred in December 1954 with -49°C.
During wintertime, 300 mm – 400 mm precipitation occurs in Khangai, Khentii, Khuvsgul Mointainous regions, 250 mm – 300 mm in Mongol Altai region, 150 mm – 250 mm in plain regions, and 50 mm – 100 mm in Gobi desert region.
The hottest month is July, with an average temperature of 15°C in Altai, Khangai, Khuvsgul, Khentii Mountainous regions, 15°C – 20°C in Low Lands of Great Lakes and Orkhon, Selenge, Khalkhgol river basins, 20°C – 25°C in plains of Dornod, and over +25°C in Dornogovi regions. The hottest temperature fluctuates between +28.5°C to +44°C degrees.
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