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Bayan-Ulgii aimag
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The general information of Bayan-Ulgii aimag
Content Data Description
Founded year 1940 -
Name of the aimag's center Ulgii with a Sum status
Coordinates  48°18'N 89°30'E -
Number of the sums (territorial administrative units) 20 including Ulgii (aimag's center)
Total territory 45,704.89 km² -
- forestry (saxaul, larch, shrubs) 22.577 ha. -
- agricultured land 1,275.6 ha. -
- pasture land 4,437,651.0 ha. -
Time zone GMT+7 Add 7 hours to Greenwich Mean Time
Area code +976-7042-xxxx 976 - country code 7042 - aimag code

Distance from Ulaanbaatar to the center of aimag (Ulgii), km
Ulaanbaatar - Ulgii 1,636
Distance from center of aimag to center of sum, km
Altai 112 Nogoonnuur 92
Altantsugts 43 Sagsai 27
Bayannuur 106 Tsagaannuur 69
Bugat 5 Tolbo 76
Bulgan 294 Ulaankhus 45
72 Tsengel 79
Deluun 158    

The aimag stretches from north to south along Mongol-Altai Mountain Ranges, and the distance from the northern border to the southern border is 380km, from the east border to the west is 270km. The aimag is elevated at 1,301-4,374m above sea level, and the highest point is Altai Mountain Range's Noyon Peak (the highest of Mongolia) at 4,373m, the lowest point is the center of Bayannuur Sum at 1,301m and 95,3% of the whole territory is elevated at or more than 1,600m above sea level. It is bordered with the People's Republic of China to the west for 450km along the Altain Mountain Ranges crest, with the Russian Federation at the north along the Siilkhem Mountains, to Uvs Aimag to the east for 165km and to Khovd Aimag to the southeast for 450km. As for the geological tectonic region, the aimag is located at the northwest side of the Mongol-Altai creases. Rich resources of tungsten steel, mixed metal, copper, gold, silver and other rare metals are found in this area.

As mountainous zone predominates the area the climate is humid and chillier than some other western aimags. At high mountain zones, the average temperature is -4°C to -2°C and the annual precipitation is 200mm to 400mm while at Khovd River Basin; a lower area, the average temprature reaches 0-2°C and the annual precipitation is about 100mm to 200mm. Since the aimag is generally colder than the other aimags, it is impractical for agricultural purposes. Alongside of Khovd Aimag, the Altantsugts and Bayannuur sums have better soil condition for agriculture. In the center, Ulgii, the average temperature is -0.2°C, in January -17.8°C and in July it is +14.5°C. The annual precipitation is 107.1mm.

The sediments from the quaternary era are of mostly sand, clay and break-stone that are formed due to wash outs of rivers, lakes and water funds are spread throughout the region. The soil of the aimag is classified into the 56th circle of Altaic high region zone for its quality. Mostly, loose mountain-meadow soil, mountain-steppe, mountain dark-brown, mountain-maroon and meadow soil dominates the area. Also, small area around Achit Lake and Bukhmurun Basin has Gobi-brown soil. As the soil is stony, it is not suitable for agriculture. Almost 70% of all Mongolian tundra soil and high-mountain soil, steppe mushy soil and steppe thick soil belong to this aimag. The river basin is mostly covered with meadow soil, swampy and salty soil which is a well fit for agricultural purposes.

Rivers and Lakes
The aimag gets comparatively a good supply of water and water fund in total of 2,896кm³/year which is 33.6% alone of total western region water fund. River flow extent reaches 100-300mm in most areas. Here, glacial water in the mountains is the main source to all the rivers. There are about 199 springs and 109 small and large rivers such as Sagsai, Chigirtei, Sogog and Tsagaan that join into Khovd River in this aimag. Also, the aimag is the richest in water-energy resource among the western aimags and the resource is calculated as 2,003 million кW/year which is equals to 58.86% of the all water energy fund of the western aimags. There are 67 small and large lakes such as Tolbo, Achit and fresh water lakes from mountain glaciers such as Dayan, Khurgan, Sargil, Khoton and Tal exist in this land. The aimag is considered to be the most iced over for having the most glaciated mountians in Mongolia, for example, Mongolias most glacial rivers of Potanin and Graneg exist in this aimag. Potanin glacial river area is 53.5кm².

Mountain meadows are mostly covered with wormwood, wild leek, ramson, sagebrush, santonica, steppe wheat grass, couch grass, snaffle grass, bush and stipa. In the shadowed areas with more moisture mostly on the slopes of the mountains, desert-steppe grass, black currant, strawberry and barberry grow here. In the mountainous areas medically-used floras such as snowlotus, lotus, licorice, valerian, pink, plaintain and glantine grow also. On the high mountains are scurf, mountain tundra vegetation, bog sedge, sedge meadow, bent grass and steppe wheat grass are found. Generally, all of the aimag's land is suitable for grazing livestock animals.

The aimag is a home to many world widely endangered animals and birds such as wild mountain sheep, wild goat, lynx and many other wild lives such as wolf, marten marmot, rabbit, ermine, and accipiter, golden eagle, woodpecker, swan, pelican, snow cock and goose. In Siilkhem Mountains protected animals such as wild mountain sheep, wild goat and lynx and besides martens, marmots, foxes, corsacs and rabbits are found in this aimag. There is even an area called "Yellow Dog'' by the natives for its marmots as big as yellow dogs. Sometimes deers, antelopes and bears come in crossing the national border. As the territory includes numerous lakes and open waters, water birds and eagle, falcon, bobwhite are widely spotted. In the aimag over 300 species of vertebrates were officially listed. Out of them 11 species of amphibians and 8 species of fish were registered.

Other information
Bayan-Ulgii aimag is famous for its natural sightseeings including Asgat Mountain, Achit Nuur Lake, Bugat Spring, Bulgan River, Bor Burgas River, Buraat Mountain, Duruu Lake, Deluun Mountain, Deluun Ekh Mountain, Tavan Bogd Mountain, Tsambagarav Mountain, Must Mountain and such.
Altai Tavan Bogd Natural Complex Area: The area covers 636,161 ha of land including Mongol-Altai peaks, Shiveet, Alag Deel, Rashaan Ikh, Dunkhurug, Zagastai, Ikh Turgen, Bayanzurkh, Yamaat, Kholagash, Khuskonak, Songinot, Yalt and Uvchuu mountains and Khorgon, Khoton, Dayn and Chikhertei lakes and also everlasting ice-topped mountains with glacial rivers. In 1996, this aimag was registered into the national preservation to be the representation of the Mongolian natural eco-system. Wild sheep population grazing in this land is officially considered to be the biggest in the world.
Siilkhem Mountain Range Natural Complex Area: The complex area is located in Nogoonnuur Sum of Bayan-Ulgii Aimag, streching along the national border occupying 140,080 ha of land. The complex area is divided into "D" (Khar Yamaat, Tsagaan Salaa), "B" (Ikh Turgen) zones. In 2000, in order to protect rare wildlife species such as panther, Altai wild sheep, grey wolf, wildcat, bearded vulture, vulture, eagle, snow cock, bobwhite, white pigeon-hawk and fish such as Altai bigmouth osman, and Mongolian ruff, this area was registered into the national preservation list.
Tsambagarav Mountain Natural Complex Area: In order to obtain the environmental conditions for normal growth of the panthers in the wildlife and ice study significance, the Government of Mongolia registered 110,960 ha area at the boundaries of Erdeneburen Sum of Khovd Aimag, Altantsugts and Bayannuur sums of Bayan-Ulgii Aimag into its national preservation list forming the Tsambagarav Mountain Natural Complex Area.
Devel Island Natural Reserve Area: In order to protect pheasant, wild boar, beaver and wild sea-buckthorn that are becoming rare, 10,300 ha of land around the Devel island of Khovd river including Usan Khooloi river which is derived from the Achit Nuur in Bayan-Ulgii and Uvs aimags, were included in the natural preservation list as a Natural Reserve Area in 2000.
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