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Dornod aimag

The general information of Dornod aimag
Content Data Description
Founded year 1931 -
Name of the aimag's center Choibalsan with a Sum status
Coordinates 48°04'N 114°30'E -
Number of the sums (territorial administrative units) 15 including Choibalsan (aimag's center)
Total territory 123,597 km² -
- forestry (saxaul, larch, shrubs) 137,034 ha. -
- agricultured land 11,070 ha. -
- pasture land 10,643,512.0 ha. -
Time zone GMT+8 Add 8 hours to Greenwich Mean Time
Area code +976-7058-xxxx 976 - country code 7058 - aimag code

Distance from Ulaanbaatar to the center of aimag (Choibalsan), km
Ulaanbaatar - Choibalsan 630
Distance from center of aimag to center of sum, km
Bayandun 176 Sergelen
Bayantumen 10 Khalkhgol 314
Bayan-Uul 180 Khulunbuir 127
Bulgan 53 Kherlen 338
Gurvanzagal 126 Tsagaan-Ovoo 107
Dashbalbar 180 Chuluunkhoroot 240
Matad 143 Choibalsan 55

Dornod aimag is located in the broad hilly steppe in eastern Mongolia and is elevated at 560-1,300m above sea level. This wide steppe is surrounded by the branch mountains of Khentii Mountains that Ar Ereen, Daguur Hills and Khyangan Range mountains. There are eye-widening steppes as such Menen, Tamsag and Matad in the northern part. The aimag borders with Russian Chita region at the north, with Inner Mongolian Khulunbuir and Khyangan provinces at the southeast, with Tumentsogt, Sukhbaatar and Erdenetsagaan sums of Sukhbaatar Aimag and Khentii Aimag at the west and southwest respectively. The lowest point of Mongolia - Khukh Nuur hollow (556m AMSL) is in this aimag. Besides, rocks and stones from paleozoic, jurassic and cretaceous era and neogon moraine are widely found in this area.

The 241-260 days of the year are sunny and bright and precipitate about 150-300mm annually. In winter, average temperature is -27°C while in summer it is +21°C. Khalkhgol Sum of Dornod gets the most precipitation since the western wind stream barely affects the eastern side of Mongolia. In summer, well-known Musson wind stream brings chilly and humid air from the ocean making the aimag the most precipitated area with unique nature. However, the extremely cold, tough winter comes with much snow. The territory around Numrug and Khalkhgol River is the only area that has maritime climate in summer and Siberian cold climate in winter. In Numrug Mountains that is a branch of Khyangan Mountain, the annual precipitation is 400-500mm. In the center of the aimag, Choibalsan Sum, average air temperature is +0.4°C. In January it is -21.3°C, while in July it is +19.9°C with annual precipitation of 246mm and average wind speed of 4.1m/sec.

Since plain steppe dominates the whole aimag, the area has dry steppe-light brown soil, gobi-brown soil and it is rich in grazing plants. Khalkhgol, Onon, Ulz River Basin is covered in black, black-brown soil, forest areas are covered in forest-black brown soil. Small sand dunes can be seen along Khalkhgol River Basin and meadow-brown soil covers the eastern part of the aimag.

Rivers and Lakes
Rivers and Lakes in Dornod belong to Pacific ocean basin, and 128 rivers with total of 3,060km length, 173 lakes and over 300 springs are officially recorded in Dornod Aimag. Rivers: Kherlen River initiated at Khentii Mountains (1,090km), Onon (292km), Teel, Duch, Yamalkh, Khalkhgol river initiated at Khyangan mountains, Numrug, Degee, Orshuun, Galtastai and Altan River. Large and small lakes: Buir, Yakhi, Khukh, Sum, Baruun Shavart, Bayan Erkhet, Shavart, Shorvog, Jirmiin Tsagaan, Bor Davst, Bulgan Shavar, Galuut, Duruu, Chukh, Guntsengeleg and Galt. The beauty of Dornod, Buir Lake is 615km², 50m deep and elevated at 583m above sea level. There are many other springs that have medicinal benefits. For example, Tsagaan Khundii Spring is to cure any irregularities in the digestive tract and it contains hydrocarbon, calcium, magnium, natrium, carbon dioxide and cililic acid. Mineralization is 1.5g/l. Nearby Lun spring is famous for its lung curing effects and Emt Spring that is eminent for curing kidney diseases. Utaat Minchuur is the only gas-spring in Mongolia with high curative effects.

There are about 80 species of medicinal herbs, 10 species of useful plants and also the plant with various types of essential oil that is found only in Mongolia, grows in this area. Stipa, wheat-grass, filifolium, santonica, oxytropis, astragal, tare and pissabed are dominant in Dornod flora. There are total of 685 species of flora officialy reported and from it 635 species of 73 families, 50 species of 8 families of trees and bushes, and 118 medicinal, 24 extremely rare, 60 sparcing and 560 plenteous species have been reported. The all edible floras grow in this aimag are: 10 types of stamenonion, rhubarb, wild garlic, sea buckthorn, blackcurrant, onion, wild cherry, hawthorn, raspberry, cranberry, wild strawberry, mushrooms, hot leek, weed, red-berries, leek, wild onion, jubata, shepherds purse, dogrose and apricot. Forests here consist of mainly larch (10.7 thous. ha), pine (22.6 thous. ha), birch (67.5 thous. ha), bush (2.2 thous. ha), aspen (1.7 thous. ha) and poplar (5.6 thous. ha).

In this aimag there are 70 species of mammals of 47 genus, 16 families, 6 orders. From these, 6 species are extremely rare, 3 are copious, 30 species are normally populated animals. Game animals such as antelope, marmot, yellow fox, corsac, wolves and such that 24 species of mammals live in this area. Dornod Steppe is home to central Asian white antelope, thus 70% of this kind reside here. Besides, in Onon, Ulz, Khalkhgol River Basin, you can find over 20 species that are in the World Red List such as deer, elk, bear, wild pig, ondatra, coon and lynx. Fox, corsac, wolf, badger, wildcat and brown pallah widely inhabits the Dornod Aimag. Total of 330 species of birds are officially reported in this region and 61 of them are local, 262 are migratory, 212 stay in summer to lay eggs, 66 species transit through and 22 species of them are on the Mongolian and World Red List. Scarcing species are: white naped crane, siberian white crane, red-crowned crane, hooded crane, larus relictus, yangtse parrot bill, wood cock and Mongolian finch. In the rivers of Dornod, 41 species of fish of 36 genus, 11 families are found and 24 species are normally populated, 12 species of fish has been registered as rare and 4 as extremely rare.

Other information
Remains of Kherlen Bar city from Kidan State of 11th century in Tsagaan-Ovoo sum at the northern shore of Kherlen river, Genghis Khan's Kherem wall ruins that goes through Bayan-Uul, Bayandun, Dashbalbar and Gurvanzagal sums, Ikh Burkhant complex with Buddha statues built in 1859-1964 are located 35km from Khalkhgol Sum, man stone from Turkic era on Shonkh-Tavan Hill, Khiimoriin Gobi of Matad Sum, man stone in a place called Khutsuu at the boundaries of Naran and Sergelen sums, palace ruins of peace-fighter Gun Savaa located in a place called Tamsagbulag of Khalkhgol Sum are the remarkable historic sites that exist in Dornod Aimag. Also, cultural sites such as man-made hill "Utai 5 Mountain" that was built by Togtokhtur Khan of Ilden Khoshuu, Melkhii Rock (Ger Rock) that was mentioned in The Secret History of Mongolia, exists in this aimag. Beautiful natural complexes:
  1. Onon River Basin, Branch mountains of Khentii Mountains in Bayan Uul sum
  2. Ikh-Gazaryn Chuluu-beautiful nature in Bayandun sum
  3. Menen Steppe-Matad, Khalkhgol sum
  4. Khuld, Ers, Kheree mountains - in 30km from Khalkhgol sum
  5. Melkhii Cliff or Ger Cliff (The Secret History of Mongolia) - Khalkhgol sum
  6. Bayan Khangai - in 14 km from Matad sum
  7. Buir lake - Khalkhgol Sum
  8. Khukh lake (the lowest point in Mongolia, 530m AMSL)
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