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Mongolia flora & fauna
HomeAbout MongoliaMongolia flora & faunaUpdated 2017 March


Flora
Mongolia flora & fauna: FloraFrom north to south, Mongolia is divided into four major latitudinal zones; forest-steppe, steppe, semi-desert and desert. There are also high mountains particularly in the forest-steppe zone including taiga and alpine taiga zones. Depending on geographical zones, belts and topography, territory of Mongolia is divided into 4 main botanical geographical districts: Khangai and Khentii, Altai mountains, the Eastern steppe and the Gobi. Although the amount of vegetation and flora of Mongolia is proportionally small. It is distinctive and heterogeneous because of the country's vast territory and geography.

In Mongolia 3,000 species of seed plants, 445 species of moss, 930 species of lichen, 838 species of mushroom, 1,574 species of water weed and 160 species of primitive organisms, belonging to 700 genus of 134 families can be found.

Coniferous forest spread throughout the northern and western parts of the country. 7% of the total area of the country is covered with forest. 22% of forest consists of larch. 12,200km² area is used as pasture land and 20,000km² is used for hay fields. Though, Mongolia is considered a country with abundant forest reserves.
Yet Mongolia is rich with rare species of medicinal herbs. There are a total 4,000 species of herbs and plants growing in Mongolia. 80% of the world wide rare species of herbs including sea buckthorn bushes, grow in Mongolia.

Fauna
Mongolia flora & fauna: FaunaThere are 138 species of mammals, 434 species of birds, 75 species of fish, 6 species of amphibians, 22 species of reptiles, 13,000 species of insects, and 516 species of simple worms found in Mongolia.

Animals listed in the Mongolian Red Book: dhole (Cuon Alpinus), Gobi bear (Ursus arctos gobiensis), Gobi wild camel (Camelus ferus), wild horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), otter (Lutra lutra), saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica mongolica), snow leopard (Uncia uncia), wild boar (Sus scrofa), black-tailed gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), moose (Alces alces), mongolian wild ass, mongolian beaver (Castor fiber birulai), and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

Birds: Hooded crane (Grus monacha), relict gull (Larus relictus), white-naped crane (Grus vipio), dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus), black stork (Ciconia nigra), and mute swan (Cygnus olor).

According to their habitat, animals are classified into the following: mountain animals (mountain sheep or argali, wild goat or ibex, snow leopard, marten, lammergeier and snow cock), steppe animals (wolf, corsac fox, antelope, saiga antelope, black-tailed gazelle, marmot, gopher, bustard and crane), forest animals (deer, moose, sable, musk deer, roe deer, bear, boar, lynx, wolf, wolverine, fox, hare, badger and skunk), water animals (muskrat, beaver, goose, duck, scoter, pike, perch, taimen, grayling, lenok and burbot), amphibians (frog), Mongolian toad and stepperunner (Eremias arguta), and reptiles (Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus), steppe rat snake (Elaphe dione), pit viper (Gloydius halys) and steppe ribbon racer (Psammophis lineolatus).
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