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Umnugovi aimag
HomeProvinces of MongoliaUmnugovi aimagUpdated 2017 March

The general data information of Umnugovi aimag
Content Data Description
Founded year 1931 -
Name of the aimag's center Dalanzadgad with a Sum status
Coordinates 43°0'N 104°15'E -
Number of the sums (territorial administrative units) 15 including Dalanzadgad (aimag's center)
Total territory 165,380.47 km² -
- forestry (saxaul, larch, shrubs) 745,308 ha -
- agricultured land 144.8 ha -
- pasture land 12,785,169.0 ha -
Time zone GMT+8 Add 8 hours to Greenwich Mean Time
Area code +976-7053-xxxx 976 - country code
7053 - aimag code

Distance from Ulaanbaatar to the center of aimag (Dalanzadgad ), km
Ulaanbaatar - Dalanzadgad 553
Distance from center of aimag to center of sum, km
Bayandalai 84 Nomgon 106
Bayan-Ovoo 162 Sevrei 214
Bulgan 98 Khanbogd 250
Gurvantes 319 Khankhongor 25
Mandal-Ovoo 140 Khurmen 61
Manlai 224 Tsogt-Ovoo 126
Noyon 216 Tsogttsetsii 98

Umnugovi is the biggest aimag in the country according to its area. It is bordered with Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Bayankhongor, Uvurkhangai aimags and to the south for 700km borders with the provinces of Bayannuur and Alshaa of Inner Mongolia, the People's Republic of China. The area is considered as a part of the Gobi (Govi) desert and elevated at the average of 1,300 to 1,600m above sea level. The continue of the Altai Mountain Range, 3,000m elevated mountains like Govi Gurvan Saikhan, Sevrei, Noyon Bogd, Nomgon, Tost, Nemegt, Altan Uul, Gilbent, 800m elevated and 150km long Khongor sand dune and couple dozen km vast Gobis like Galba, Borzon, Zeemeg, and Zag Sujiin all lie in the territory of the aimag.
The area is rich with mineral recourses like lead, copper, coal, iron ore, marble, feldspar and crystal. The Tavan Tolgoi coal mine is located in 100km east from the center of the aimag Dalanzadgad, in 18km southwest from the Tsogttsetsii Sum center and in 540 km from Ulaanbaatar. Tavan Tolgoi deposit contains 6.4 billion ton of high quality coal with 7,760 to 8,120 kcal in value.
The Oyu Tolgoi, copper and gold mine, is located in Khanbogd Sum territory, 45km south from the center of the sum, 240km west from the center of Umnugovi Aimag, Dalanzadgad and 600km from Ulaanbaatar. Discovered copper deposit is 26 million tons and gold deposit is 1,000 tons as of 2006. Oyu Tolgoi deposit contains 2.31 billion tons of ore with 1.16% copper concentrate and 0.35 g/ton gold concentrate.

Umnugovi aimag has all kinds of terrain including Gobi desert, mountains, valleys, plains etc., and this mixed shape of terrain is the main factor of the area's distinct climate conditions. For instance, average annual temperature of the central and westerns sums of the aimag Bayandalai, Noyon, Gurvantes, and Khurmen, is around 3.9°C to 6.1°C whereas, southeastern plains of the aimag have average temperature of 7.4°C. Annual average maximum temperature is around 20.2°C to 24°C during July and minimum temperature is around -11.5°C to -6.8°C during January. But, average annual temperatures fluctuate every year. The maximum temperature can reach up to 32.6°C to 39.9°C in northern and northwestern sums, 35°C to 35.8°C in central sums, and 38.6°C to 41°C in the rest of the aimag. Whole area of the aimag is located in dry climate region, and average humidity is around 29% to 50% during the warm season and 50% to 73% during the cold seasons. Average precipitation received in Dalanzadgad, Noyon, Gurvantes, Khankhongor, Bulgan, and Manlai sums is around 102.1 to 132.9mm, in Bayan-Ovoo, and Nomgon sums is around 63.2 to 70.9mm and in the rest of the sums is around 80 to 100mm. But in some years precipitation rate increases are unusually high or decrease unusually low. Moreover, it happens that most of the annual anticipated precipitation is received during one alone day. Monthly average wind speed is the highest in spring and the lowest in winter and summer seasons. But in contrary, average wind speed in Bulgan Sum, is the highest in November and December. According to the statistics, in Bulgan Sum, days with high wind are two times higher and duration of high winds are three times longer than Dalanzadgad, the center of aimag.

Soil is thin in the south of the aimag and light colored semi-desert in the north. According to the field soil study, there are 3 subtypes of soil exist in the aimag.
1. Light colored desert soil
2. Light colored desert steppe soil
3. Grayish brown colored desert steppe soil
Mountain brown and Gobi brown soil is dominated in the area.

Rivers and Lakes
Even though Umnugovi Aimag doesn't have any big lakes and rivers, it has beautiful oases and small lakes and ponds. The area has many springs such as Khadat, Nemegt, Zuulun, Enger Buleen and Talkhit cold springs, Elgen and Salkhit hot springs. By 2007 national water counting 3 rivers, 2 lakes, 581 springs, and 1 medicinal spring were officially counted. Where 2 lakes, 217 springs were drained since the last count. Underground water reserve of the aimag is 260.5 million cubic meters.

Astragal and gentian etc. medicinal herbs and total about 250 species of small leafed, nutritious, short plants and vegetation that are resistant to hot and dry weather of the desert, grow here. Desert and desert steppe plants like stipa, straw, cleistogenes, psammochloa, ephedra, xanthoxylon, anabisis, ceratoides, salsola etc. are found in the area.
Nitraria, cynomorium and agriophyllum etc. tasteful edible plants and elm, saxsaul, populous and oleaster etc. trees grow in here. Ancient Asian desert plants' descendent plant species like clematis fruticosa, agrostis, potaninia, zygophyllum, nitraria, brachanthemum, incarvillea, evergreen caragana that are cannot be found in other parts of Asia grow in the area. These unique and interesting species are proof that the region's vegetation families are of an ancient origin. The area is rich with tasteful edible plants like wild leek, Mongolian onion, feather grass, couch, straw and bushes like salsola, anabisis, sagebrush, caragana and ceratoides. Saxaul, pine and xanthoxylon etc. are scattered throughout the desert. An isolated area of vegetation in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source is called an oasis. In the oasis populus, tamarix, oleaster, willow and reaumuria etc. bushes are predominant. Reed, leymus chinensis, straw, halimodendron, sophora, peganum, calamagrostis macilenta, silverweed also grow in these oases. Plants and vegetations that local people use in their lives are cynomorium, nitraria and a Mongolian onion.

World and nation widely endangered species like Argali the wild sheep, ibex, leopard, black tailed antelope, Mazaalai the Gobi bear, marbled polecat, wildcat, lynx, rock marten, gopher, antelope etc. are inhabited here. The 956 head of Argali wild sheep, 2,018 head of ibexes, and 562 head of black tailed antelopes were counted during the national wild animals' registration and counting in 2007.

Other information
Yolyn Am: Yolyn Am is the scenic gorge of the Govi Gurvan Saikhan Mountain and the name was given due to its large number of Yol or lammergeyer population. It is a beautiful place with clear air, cold streams and surrounded with distinctive rock formations. Ice and snow in the bottom of the gorge remains frozen until the end of the July. Juniper grows here. Early in the morning or late in the evening people can spot rare animals like wild goats and lammergeyer in this gorge. Yolyn Am is located in 45km northwest of Dalanzadgad.
Bayanzag: This place is rich with saxsaul trees and that is why this name "Bayanzag or Rich in Saxaul" was given to it. In 1921, The US paleontologists found a dinosaur skeleton, for the first time in Asia, from here. Skeletons of Protoceratops and Tarbosaurus, the dinosaurs that were living in the area hundreds of million years ago, were found here. At that time, the Mongolian Government had exchanged this Tarbosaurus skeleton for two Ford vehicles and nowadays this skeleton is displayed at the National History Museum in NYC.
At sunset, red cliffs in the area look like as if they are burning in flame, so American paleontologist named this place "Flaming Cliffs" in 1921. Bayanzag is located in 120km northwest of Dalanzadgad.
Khongoryn Els: This is the area of 180km long, white sand strip. When there is a high wind, it makes a similar sound of an airplane, so local people call it "Singing Dune". Khongoryn Els is located in 200km west of center Dalanzadgad. Its height reaches up to 80m at the highest point.
Nemegt Uul: It is located 400km west of Dalanzadgad, one of the places rich with dinosaur fossils. Its muddy red cliffs look astonishing. Those cliffs are similar to Bayanzag cliffs. Also, Nemegt, Altan Uul, Tugrugiin Shiree, Ukhaa Tolgod, Khermen Tsav etc. places are rich with dinosaur fossils.
Khermen Tsav: Dinosaur fossil rich area that is really difficult to reach. There is no water and no human settlements in this place. This is a hollow pit like place with two entrances, and temperatures can reach up to +60oC. This place is called "Death Pit" because people can easily get lost in here and there is no water at all.
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