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Uvurkhangai aimag
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The general information of Uvurkhangai aimag
Content Data Description
Founded year 1931 -
Name of the Aimag's center Arvaikheer with a Sum status
Coordinates 45°45'N 102°45'E -
Number of the Sums (territorial administrative units) 19 including Arvaikheer (aimag's center)
Total territory 62,895.33 km² -
- forestry 150,733.6 ha -
- agricultured land 3,804.4 ha -
- pasture land 5,401,513.0 ha -
Time zone GMT+8 Add 8 hours to Greenwich Mean Time
Area code +976-7032-xxxx 976 - country code
7032 - aimag code

Distance from Ulaanbaatar to the center of aimag (Arvaikheer ), km
Ulaanbaatar - Arvaikheer 430
Distance from center of amag to center of Sum, km
Baruunbayan-Ulaan 175 Khujirt 84
Bat-Ulzii 124 Nariinteel 135
Bayangol 80 Ulziit 88
Bayan-Undur 147 Sant 110
Bogd 197 Taragt 35
Burd 157 Tugrug 95
Guchin-Us 104 Uyanga 61
Kharkhorin 138 Yesunzuil 100
Khairkhandulaan 72 Zuunbayan 47

The aimag's territory consists of a Khangai (mountain steppe region), steppe and Gobi regions. The aimag is occupied with a steppe in the central part, with the Branch Mountains of the Altai Range and sandy steppe in the southern part, with the Branch Mountains of the Khangai Range in the northern part of the region. A wooded-steppe occupies 23.0% of the entire aimag territory while a steppe occupies 28.2% and desert-steppe occupies 48.8% of the territory respectively. Since the aimag is divided into three different natural zones, it is rich with natural resources. Plenty of high mountains and hills that are elevated at 2,000-3,590m above sea level such as Khyatruun and Bituut of Khangai Range, Bagabogd and Myangan Yamaat of Mongol-Altai Range. Moreover, 24 meters high, beautiful waterfall of Orkhon River named "Ulaan Tsutgalan", naturally created unique Khuisiin Naiman lakes and Tamchiin Yol Cliffs at an elevation of 2,500m above sea level, exist in this region. Also, many eye-widening steppes such as Arvaikheer, Shagj, Doloodoi, Khongor, Guchingiin Tal and Orkhon Valley lies in this aimag. The northern part of the aimag is occupied with the Branch Mountains of the Khangai Range whereas the southern part is occupied with the steppe. Bagabogd and Artsbogd mountains lie in the southern steppe of the aimag.

The average air temperature of January is -18.1°C and at the coldest it reaches -44°C. For 36 days in winter the temperature drops down to -30°C or below. The cold weather continues for about 180 days of the year and the remaining half of the year is warm, therefore, the annual average temperature is 0°C. The average annual precipitation is 354.5mm. It is common to have heavy rainfalls and sometimes the precipitation reaches 46mm a day. The most of the annual precipitation falls during the summer 3 months. Statistics show that during the warm seasons it precipitates for about 336mm and in the cold seasons for 18.2mm. 62 days of the warm season gets rainfall and 36 days of the cold season gets snow. According to this precipitation route, monthly average air humidity is 50-70%. The average wind speed is 4.2-5.2m/sec throughout the year. Spring and fall are the windiest months and the continuation of the wind blow is comparatively longer than the other seasons.

Mountain dark brown soil is spread throughout the northern part of the aimag, steppe brown soil throughout the eastern regions, Gobi gray and sandy soil throughout the southern regions. Central and northeastern regions have an Early Mesozoic Era sandy stone and hornstones, southwestern region has Cretaceous Period moraines. Coal (in Bayanteeg) and construction material recourses are plenty in the region.
According to the geological research, 4 gold deposits and 10 detections, 9 precious metal, 4 nonferrous metal, 2 iron ore, 4 mineral paint, 1 salt deposit and 12 construction material resource deposits have been found in this aimag. The mountains of the aimag belonging to the Orhkon Valley region consist of Devonian uncategorized rocks, granite, Lithium fluoride granite, granodiorite, leucogranite, granosyenite, syenite and alkaline of mid Mesozoic era and of rock compositions of mid and early quaternary periods.

Rivers and Lakes
Big rivers like Orkhon, Ongi, Taats and Ar Agui flow through the Uvurkhangai Aimag territory. Large lakes like Ulaan Tsutgalan, Naiman Nuur and Taatsyn Tsagaan and numerous springs like Khujirtyn, Mogoit, Khyatruun, Khuremtiin, Taats, Mustiin, Khuren Khad, Khorkhoi Turuu and Takhiin all belong to this aimag.
Central regions of the aimag have many springs, rivers and lakes, such as Budant, Khar Khusht, Ulaan lakes, Uliastai, Bituut, Khyatruun, Ulaan, Khunug, Khamar, Mogoit and Moilt rivers that take course from the Khangai Mountain Range and flow into the Orkhon River.
According to the national surface water registration in 2004, 7 lakes including Shar Burd, Tsagaaan, Azar and Duut, 27 rivers, 13 dried up rivers, 48 springs and 4 medicinal springs were officially counted in the territory of the Kharkhorin Sum.
Out of dozens of rivers that flow into the Orkhon River, the biggest ones are Tamir, Khugshin Orkhon, Tuul, Yeruu, Kharaa and Sharyn rivers. For 140-160 days a year, the rivers are covered in ice.

Khangai vast forest and taiga are spread throughout the north of the aimag's territory. Steppe plants are found in the eastern parts and gobi plants are found in the southern parts of the aimag. Pine, birch, cedar, larch and evergreen trees grow in the high mountain regions. Aspen, bushes, poplar and black elder tree grow in the low lands of the river valleys. Larch occupies 131.7 thousand ha, cedar 18.4 thousand ha, bush 0.1 thousand ha, saxaul tree 52.4 thousand ha of the natural grown forest. The aimag's vegetation is dominated with the steppe community plants such as Stipa baicalienesis, Stipa kriloÒ¯i, Leymus chinensis, Bupleurum scopzonerifolium, Galium Ò¯erum and Astragalus melilotoides belonging to the Eurasian great steppe region, Mongolian steppe region and Middle Khalkh sub-regions vegetation community. The mountain and steppe region, herbs, couch grass and stipa belonging to Daguur-Mongol and Eastern Mongolian vegetation community are also dominant in the area. Out of total 139 species of plants, 4 species are woody plants, 12 species are edible, 21 species are herbs, 2 species are berries, 52 species are nutritional pasture plants, 6 species are decorative plants and 1 species is technical plant respectively.

The aimag is home to many endangered animals of forest, taiga and Gobi regions. 38 species of animals of 26 genus, 12 families and 4 orders inhabit the aimag territory. In Khangai region, deers, antelopes, steppe foxes, wolves and wildcats are found. Whereas in the Gobi region Argali the wild sheep, Ibex wild goats, white antelopes, black tailed gazelles and snowcocks are plenty. World and nation widely endangered animals that are included in the World Red Book such as Khulan the wild ass, endangered species of lynx and leopard, and Daguur hedgehog live in the Gobi areas.
Dragonfly (tipulidae), mosquito (culicidae), midge (simuliidae), chironomidae fly, syrphydae fly and tephritidae fly are plenty in the region.
From insect species that are found in the aimag, Papilio machaon is the only species that is listed in the Mongolian Red Book.
Also, 14 species of fish of 8 families belonging to the Arctic Ocean Basin community are widely found in the region and among them are an endangered sturgeon (acipenser baeri baicalensis) that is included in the Mongolia Red Book and a rare fishery species of a grey muller (hucho taimen). 163 species of birds belonging to 98 genus, 42 families and 15 orders live in the territory of the aimag. Out of them 95 species of migrant birds, 35 species of sedentary birds, 28 species of pass through migrant birds, 3 species of birds that spend winter in the area and occasionally 2 species of birds were counted. 6 species of endangered birds that are listed in the Mongolian Red Book such as spoonbill, whooper swan, goose, white tail aquatic eagle, penduline tit and sandpiper live in the area.

Other information
Mongolian geographical central point is located in a spot called Uvurkhushuut at the southern side of the Ongon Mountain of Burd Sum. The largest historical and Buddhist heritage of Mongolia, the Erdene Zuu monastery and the remains of the Capital of Ancient Mongolian Empire, Karakorum (Kharkhorin) City are all located in Uvurkhangai Aimag.
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