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Zavkhan aimag

The general information of Zavkhan aimag
Content Data Description
Founded year 1923 -
Name of the aimag's center Uliastai with a Sum status
Coordinates 48°0'N 96°15'E -
Number of sums (territorial administrative units) 24 including Uliastai (aimag's center)
Total territory 82,455.66 km2 -
- forestry 490,729.5 ha -
- agricultured land 3,313.4 ha -
- pasture land 6,105,968.0 ha -
Time zone GMT+8 Add 8 hours to Greenwich Mean Time
Area code +976-7046-xxxx 976 - country code
7046 - aimag code

Distance from Ulaanbaatar to the center of aimag (Uliastai ), km
Ulaanbaatar - Uliastai 1,115
Distance from center of aimag to center of sum, km
Aldarkhaan 32 Tosontsengel 181
Asgat 224 Tudevtei 196
Bayantes 290 Telmen 122
Bayankhairkhan 255 Tes 267
Durvuljin 143 Urgamal 236
Zavkhanmandal 167 Tsagaankhairkhan 44
Ider 75 Tsagaanchuluut 97
Ikh-Uul 224 Tsetsen-Uul 247
Numrug 152 Shiluustei 135
Otgon 128 Erdenekhairkhan 115
Santmargats 292 Yaruu 56
Songino 232    

Zavkhan aimag occupies the wide area of mountains, steppe and deserts in the western part of Mongolia. The aimag borders with Khovd and Uvs in the west, the Tuva Republic of the Russian Federation in the north, Khuvsgul and Arkhangai aimags in the east, Bayankhongor and Govi-Altai aimags in the southern part respectively. As the aimag is located in the western part of the Khangai range, the whole territory of the aimag is mountainous. The capital Uliastai sum is surrounded by many high mountains including the highest peak of Khangai range the Otgontenger (4,301m) and its branch mountains such as Tarvagatai (3,227m), Khurimt, Tudevtei, Gurvan Khaltar, Gyalgar and Bulnai mountain (2,619m) at its eastern part, by the branch mountains of the Tagnyn range in the northern part along the border line. The western part of the aimag is occupied with steppes with river valleys, hills and hillocks.

The aimag has an extreme continental climate. The average temperature in January reaches -20°C to -30°C and in July reaches +13°C to +22°C. The lowest ever recorded temperature was -53°C which was also the lowest for the whole country. The average annual precipitation is 400mm in the high mountain areas, 80-100mm in the western parts and 200-260mm in throughout the rest of the aimag.

Worain granite, Permian, Devonian, Carboniferous period metamorphic rocks are spread throughout the most of the territory of the aimag. Copper (found in Oyut) and construction material resources are found in the area.
Alpine, taiga, forest steppe, steppe and dry desert soil mainly covers the territory of the aimag. Taiga soil covers the mountain regions; sand covers the western parts and steppe brown soil is spread throughout the southern parts of the aimag. The northern and eastern parts of the aimag are covered with forest brown soil. Iron ore, tin, gold, copper, diamond, molybdenum ore, precious stones, alabaster, phosphates, construction material resources and different chemical elements are plenty in the area.

Rivers and Lakes
Zavkhan aimag territory lies in the different geographical regions. The aimag has over 200 springs and rivers with a steady current and over 100 big and small lakes. Among them are the Ider, Zavkhan, Tes, Mukhar, Khungui rivers and their inflows of Borkh, Yaruu, Shiree, Chigestei, Buyant, Shar-Us, Tumurt, Zart, Tsetsuukh, Khos Zaigal, Zuil, Uliastai, Ikh and Baga Bogd, and Chuluut rivers, the Khar Nuur, Telmen, Oigon, Khar Duruu, Bust, Ar and Uvur Badarkhundaga, Tsavdan, Chandmanii Khar, Bayan, Kholboo, Khukh Nuur and Tsagaan Nuur lakes, the Otgontenger, Bayanzurkh, Ulaankhaalga, Zart and Khojuulyn springs. Dozens of lakes that are formed by the Ice Age moraine are located in the Buyant and Shar Us river valleys. The largest of them is 20 square kilometer Khukh Nuur Lake. All these lakes are connected to each other via small springs and drain their excess water into the Zavkhan River. Once the Zavkhan river passes the Khangai Mountain range, it flows towards the Great lakes deppression. Width of the course of the Zavkhan River around the Khangai range is 30 to 60 meters, depth is 0.6 to 2 meters and the current speed is 1-1.5m/sec and down from the mouth of the Bogd river the course width reaches 100 to 350m, depth reaches 0.7 to 1.5m and current speed reaches 0.7-1.2m/sec.

Larch grows in the Khangai Bulnai, Tagnyn ranges and in their branch mountains. Cedar forest covers the Tarvagatain mountain range. Potatoes, different types of vegetables, and sea buckthorn are grown in Ider, Tes, and Bogd river valleys. The northern and eastern parts of the aimag are covered with forest and taiga. Steppe vegetation is spread throughout the southern parts of the aimag. Wild berries are abundant in the forests.
Due to its distinctive geological, geographical and climate features the aimag has a wide range of flora. 17 sum areas out of the 23 sums of the aimag are more or less covered with larch and broadleaved forest. Also over 10 different types of berry bushes like black currant, blueberry, black berry and gooseberry grows in those sums.
In Khangai regions of the aimag moss, sedge, kobresia, hippolitia trifida, ajania, juniper, agropyron, huckleberry and many other different species of mountain, meadow and steppe plants are widely found.
By geographical vegetation division the aimag belongs to the forest and steppe circle of Khangai mountain range and to the desert steppe circle of the Great Lake Depression, therefore floral species are very unique and distinctive.
Out of the 1,240 species of plants that are registered in the Khangai mountain region circle, 151 species are bushes and trees, 1,063 species are graminaceous plants. The desert steppe circle of the Great lake depression covers the most of the Zavkhan aimag territory. In this circle 666 species of plants are registered and out of that 96 species are bushes and trees and 570 species are graminaceous plants.

Bears, wild boars, roe deer, deer, Argali the wild sheep, wild goats, leopards, wolves, foxes, steppe foxes, wildcats, badgers, lynxes, rabbits, hares, marmots, black tailed gazelles and antelopes that inhabit the different geographical regions are widely found in this aimag. Forest, alpine and steppe birds and migrant birds inhabit the area. Endangered species of birds like snowcock, quail, wood grouse, swan, pelican, falcon, and hawk are also found in the aimag. Khar and Bayan lakes are abundant with different species of fish.

Other information
Selective breeds of local live stock such as Tulman Khukht goat, Bulnai Ox, Tes river horse, Sartuul Uutsan Suult sheep, Cashmere Khar goat, Talyn Ulaan cow are dominant among the domestic animals. The aimag has an Economics College which is a branch college of the Mongolian National University.
Border crossing point to the Russian Federation the Artssuuri point is located in the Tes sum territory.
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