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Ulaanbaatar city
HomeAbout MongoliaUlaanbaatar cityUpdated 2017 June
Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia, is located in the Tuul River valley elevated at 1,300m above sea level. By 2015 statistics, the population of the city was counted at 1,345,000 people which accounts for almost 50% of the total Mongolian population. Ulaanbaatar is the cultural, political, and financial heart of the country. The Tuul River valley is one of the most fertile regions that nomadic tribes always wanted to establish their control over since the dawn of the time.

In 1639, in the territory of present day Uvurkhangai aimag's Burd sum, the first Bogd Jebtsundamba - Zanabazar (1635–1723) was proclaimed as the Mongolian Religious Leader and built his Ger Palace. That event is considered as the first establishment of the present Ulaanbaatar city. Even though Zanabazar was a lama, he lived like a nomad; therefore his ger palace called "Urguu" was actually a nomadic establishment, in essence of a nomadic town. The city changed location twenty-eight times, moving along the Selenge, Orkhon and Tuul rivers with each location being chosen ceremonically. In 1778, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe Rivers. Since then it has been called Ikh Khuree or Da Khuree.
By the revolutionary movement of 1911, Mongolia had been freed from the Manchu domination, and Bogd Jebtsundamba the 8th was honored as Mongolian Ruler and renamed Ikh Khuree as Niislel Khuree. Niislel Khuree became the heart of the country's economy, politics and religion with branches of Russian, Chinese and American companies. But in 1919, the Chinese army had invaded Niislel Khuree and imprisoned Bogd khaan. In 1921, White Russian Baron Ungern took back Niislel Khuree from Kuomintang and started ruling the city. In 1921, Mongolian People's Party was established and the Niislel Khuree was set free from the White Russians with the assistance of the Soviet Union and the People's Government was established.
In 1924, People's Republic of Mongolia was officially declared and the Niislel Khuree was renamed as the city of Ulaanbaatar. The name Ulaanbaatar means "Red Hero". After World War II, under Socialism with the help of Soviet Russia, old-styled districts were replaced into new districts with apartments and new buildings. The railway connecting Ulaanbaatar with Moscow and Beijing was built in 1956 and many apartment buildings, cinemas, theatres and museums were built around the same time. But many historically valuable temples and religious places were destroyed in the socialist transformation after the political repression of 1930.

Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia

The Ulaanbaatar city is divided into 9 districts:
- Bagakhangai
- Bayangol
- Bayanzurkh
- Songinokhairkhan
- Sukhbaatar
- Khan-Uul
- Chingeltei

Satellite cities of Ulaanbaatar:
- Baganuur
- Nalaikh

List of twin towns and sister cities of Ulaanbaatar:
- Namyangju, South Korea
- Seoul, South Korea
- Ankara, Turkey
- Krasnoyarsk, Russia
- Irkutsk, Russia
- Moscow, Russia
- Saint Petersburg, Russia
- Ulan-Ude, Russia
- Denver, Colorado, United States
- San Francisco, United States
- Bangkok, Thailand
- Sapporo, Japan
- Aomori, Japan
- Miyakonojo, Japan
- Tokyo, Japan
- Taipei, Taiwan
- Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China
- Tianjin, China
- Beijing, China
- Hanoi, Vietnam
- Gold Coast, Australia
- Delhi, India
- Bonn, Germany
- Leeds, United Kingdom
- Most, Czech Republic
- Colombo, Sri Lanka
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